Shaping net zero: responding to the infrastructure challenge
The inaugural address to members of the Institute of Civil Engineers from incoming President Rachel Skinner was stark. “The way we, as civil engineers, have planned, designed, constructed and operate our infrastructure systems have been part of the (climate change) problem,” she said. “It hasn’t been intentional but it’s time to recognise that we need to do things differently.”
From the address, what was clear is the outsized role that civil engineers will play in society’s response to climate change. The carbon impact of the infrastructure that we create is twofold; firstly, created by the design, materials and construction choices we make, and secondly through the behaviours that we enable – be they energy, transport, buildings, water, waste or digital. Altogether it means that 70% of carbon emissions can be traced back to infrastructure.
To reach net zero, we must cut lifecycle emissions in half by the end of the next decade across all sectors. But as Lord Deben puts it, “We are no longer in control of the timetable” which means we must also think about adaptation to increased floods and droughts, rising sea levels, more aggressive heatwaves, fires and extreme weather. If we are to achieve net zero in time, we must first harness our collective capability as engineers and secondly change the way we think. For too long, reducing carbon emissions has been a value add. Instead, it must be core to all activities, and we must regard those activities within the system as a whole.
A new calling: climate change
As engineers, we recognise the sheer scale of the challenge in addressing climate change. In fact, it has become so existential that, for many of us, it now represents a lifechanging proposition. At the same time, it calls many of us back to why we became engineers; to make the world a better place. We must be part of the solution to alter society’s carbon trajectory.
Reducing carbon needs to be the focus of every engineer in practice, and those yet to enter the profession too, for the rest of their careers. This is no longer a problem we can leave for other professions or later generations. As the wielders of carbon intensive steel and cement, we must explore new ways to create infrastructure and not rely on manufacturers and research institutes to develop low or no carbon options for us. And public momentum is behind us. In transport infrastructure for example, the outcry against the Heathrow extension made the message clear: business as usual is no longer welcome.
Transport is one of the best industries in which to strengthen sustainability in the near term, because infrastructure is designed to stand for such a long time. Some of Network Rail's oldest bridges and cuttings are still in operation 200 years later. Building efficiently, using low carbon materials, innovating and re-using old structures will help.
But, so will designing intelligently. Slight adjustments to gradient on highways and railways, for example, can create significant carbon savings over time. Building bridges or tunnels with space for future cabling or services can extend lifetimes.
We must also tackle the common assumption that reducing carbon comes at a premium. If projects begin to factor in the lifecycle cost and associated impacts of not reducing carbon, then it becomes clear that action now will serve positively later. And for those less proactive, as carbon taxes become more commonplace, the economic return will become more apparent. For now, the economic cost of pollution is limited, but it is only a matter of time.
Breaking the status quo
While most engineers may be enamoured by the technical challenge posed by solving the world’s most pressing issue, we really need to leverage softer skills. It is possible that we have stayed in the background for too long, when in fact we are more qualified than most to deliver a net zero world. In other words, now is the time for us to take the lead. Some would say that it is also our responsibility as it was engineers that drove the industrial revolution all those decades ago – it’s a debt that we should repay. Whichever reason strikes you, it boils down to it being our professional duty to act, and we cannot afford to wait to be instructed.
Sustainability can no longer be the exclusive remit of the “benefits team”. It can no longer be a value adding activity, an afterthought, but must be treated as a core part of every engineering project. To achieve this, we must begin to break down the siloes that divide us and block the creative problem solving that spurs sustainability. We must identify and use all opportunities on projects as well as adjacent areas, to create sustainable solutions.
Utilising under-appreciated treasures, such as billions of gallons of mine water, to provide a low-cost, low-carbon, reliable and resilient heating solution across the country, is one such opportunity. With the aid of technological drivers, smarter urban designs, systems, services, and use of real-time data we can offer tailored, smart and sustainable engineering solutions, to make a positive impact on societies around the globe. These next-generation solutions redefine the old infrastructure not only in the way they are thought out, but also by transforming many liabilities to assets.
Our thinking must also stretch beyond our immediate remit to consider the project’s use and lifecycle. For transport infrastructure we must consider how people travel and goods move, and this will evolve into the future. We need to engineer our towns and cities in a way that integrates different door-to-door options in a way that can accommodate future changes and challenges such as climate or pandemics.
And decommissioning must also be considered – the 20th century is littered with design mistakes where decommissioning has not been given proper thought. Instead we need to consider project materials within a circular economy, get to grips with embedded carbon within supply chains and understand how we can reduce, reuse and recycle.
One would be forgiven for feeling daunted by the challenge, but we can take comfort in knowing that this is what we have trained for. Ahead, we are faced with a vast set of unusual and exciting sustainability problems that offer every engineer an opportunity to leave their mark on the world. As Skinner said, there are some aspects we need to do differently, we must change the way we think and collaborate with others, but as avid problem solvers, there is no better profession for the job.
Alistair Kean is Environmental Director at Cowi
China’s Broad Group builds 10-storey apartment in 28 hours
The China-based manufacturing enterprise Broad Group has managed to construct a 10-storey steel apartment building in just over a day. Constructed in the city of Changsha in China, the company used bolt-together modular units known as its “Living Building System”.
A video time-lapse showing the build process. Video: Broad Group.
Broad Group, a manufacturing company based in Changsha, constructs a range of air-conditioning, heating, and prefabricated structural units. It accomplished the challenge in 28 hours and 45 minutes, enlisting help from three cranes and an on-site workforce.
Broad Group’s “Living Building” system
Designed to be easy to transport and install, Broad Group’s “Living Building” system uses components that are able to fit into a standard shipping container, and then be bolted together when they reach the site. Ductwork and wiring are fitted directly by the factory, the company said.
As part of the system, Broad Group’s B-Core steel slabs are used as structural elements which, the company claims are 10-times lighter and 100-times stronger than conventional slabs. The company also says they have the ability to resist earthquakes and typhoons, and that it costs less than a carbon steel building and has low energy consumption.
Broad Group also says that buildings of up to 200 storeys, supertall towers, could be built using the same modules due to the B-Core steel slabs’ strength and lightness.
Other Broad Group projects
Broad Group has completed other significant projects in the past. In 2012, for instance, it attempted to build the tallest tower in the world in Changsha at 838m, which would have made it 10m taller than the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. The company claimed it could have made the building, named Sky City, in just eight months. However, due to not receiving approval, it was never built.
In 2015, the company accomplished another “speed-build” challenge, constructing a 57-story tower using the “Living Building system”. It was completed in just 19 days.