Sustainable, economical and architecturally inspiring: the rise of timber as a modern construction material
Timber is often regarded as one of the most sustainable materials for mainstream construction projects, while at the same time often criticised as being expensive and architecturally restrictive. Yet new thinking has meant timber can now be approached as an economically viable option for large scale projects that does not mean sacrificing on architectural creativity.
Leading the way in a new timber revolution is cross-laminated timber (CLT). Layers of softwood timber planks, of varying thickness (between approximately 20mm and 50mm), are glued and pressed together at right angles to each other. This creates a solid cross section of timber, which can then be used as walls or floors. The ability to use the panels for both in-plane and out-of-plane loads, as well as the variety of sizes available, creates a key flexibility in design, while timber boasts the lowest embodied carbon of any construction material.
In illustrating just how economical, sustainable and creative timber can be, we believe the recent work completed by Ramboll at William Perkin High School in West London offers a clear example of why timber should now be a serious contender when selecting building materials.
William Perkin High School, Greenford
The £20 million school building opened just this year, with a total floor area in excess of 13,000m2 and space for over 1,200 students. The entire superstructure is constructed out of CLT panels, and represents the UK’s largest solid timber panel building.
The construction of William Perkin used some 3,800m3 of timber, which will have generated around 1,300t of embodied carbon emissions. However, this volume of timber is thought to store approximately 3,100t of CO2. Therefore, in taking account of this carbon store, the carbon footprint of William Perkin is negative and can offset the building’s operational carbon for a period of approximately 10 years. The building is therefore ‘carbon neutral’ for 10 years.
CLT is largely produced from timber grown in sustainably managed forests in the Nordic region, Germany, and Austria, and all timber used in William Perkin is PEFC certified – meaning that for every tree felled at least two are planted. As a result, the area of forest in these regions is actually increasing despite the production of significant amounts of timber.
Air tightness is another key factor in the drive to reduce operational carbon because heat (i.e. carbon) escapes through gaps in the building fabric. Without any additional measures to normal fixing details, William Perkin achieved an air-leakage level of 2.8m3/(h.m2), far superior to UK building regulations. Finally, construction resulted in virtually no on site waste from the structural frame erection, which is highly unusual. This is derived from the fact that CLT is pre-fabricated off-site and delivered on-site in a ‘just-in-time’ fashion.
In examining the economic opportunities of CLT, shorter programme length is crucial. By using CLT instead of concrete the superstructure construction period was reduced from an estimated 38 weeks to just 19 weeks. The financial implications of reducing program length are difficult to quantify, but savings are likely to be significant, with wages and all associated costs hugely reduced.
As well as being quick to assemble, the CLT structure enables construction firms to achieve much earlier weather-tightness. The panels themselves form a weather-tight structure and so no further weather-tight measures are required, and the precision cut nature of the panels also allow windows to be pre-ordered. This means that follow on trades, such as fixtures and plaster work etc, can start much earlier in the programme than under traditional structures, saving further cost and time.
By looking at costs as a whole, despite higher upfront costs for the material, with CLT the other efficiency gains should translate into clear cost reductions when compared to traditional steel and concrete frames.
Finally, William Perkin offers clear evidence that timber panel buildings are not restricted to simple rectilinear designs, as many still wrongly believe. It showcases bold yet functional architecture, and highlights its timber frame through employment of extensive timber finishing to the interiors. Features such as the sunlit central atrium, running the four full floors, open onto light-filled classrooms and encase multiple open timber staircases.
Exterior hightlights such as stainless steel strips within the cladding offer articulation, and the buildings shape fits with both its function and location. Quite simply, the creativity of client and architect need not be restricted in the use of timber, and they may even be inspired by its distinctive character as a fresh and modern material.
With William Perkin High School up and running, the team at Ramboll are excited for the future possibilities for CLT. William Perkin has shown that CLT can be the right solution with its carbon credentials, reduced construction waste and programme length, meaning it should always be considered as a potential structural solution.
China’s Broad Group builds 10-storey apartment in 28 hours
The China-based manufacturing enterprise Broad Group has managed to construct a 10-storey steel apartment building in just over a day. Constructed in the city of Changsha in China, the company used bolt-together modular units known as its “Living Building System”.
A video time-lapse showing the build process. Video: Broad Group.
Broad Group, a manufacturing company based in Changsha, constructs a range of air-conditioning, heating, and prefabricated structural units. It accomplished the challenge in 28 hours and 45 minutes, enlisting help from three cranes and an on-site workforce.
Broad Group’s “Living Building” system
Designed to be easy to transport and install, Broad Group’s “Living Building” system uses components that are able to fit into a standard shipping container, and then be bolted together when they reach the site. Ductwork and wiring are fitted directly by the factory, the company said.
As part of the system, Broad Group’s B-Core steel slabs are used as structural elements which, the company claims are 10-times lighter and 100-times stronger than conventional slabs. The company also says they have the ability to resist earthquakes and typhoons, and that it costs less than a carbon steel building and has low energy consumption.
Broad Group also says that buildings of up to 200 storeys, supertall towers, could be built using the same modules due to the B-Core steel slabs’ strength and lightness.
Other Broad Group projects
Broad Group has completed other significant projects in the past. In 2012, for instance, it attempted to build the tallest tower in the world in Changsha at 838m, which would have made it 10m taller than the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. The company claimed it could have made the building, named Sky City, in just eight months. However, due to not receiving approval, it was never built.
In 2015, the company accomplished another “speed-build” challenge, constructing a 57-story tower using the “Living Building system”. It was completed in just 19 days.