38.9 billion increase in spend on projects in the UK Government infrastructure and construction pipeline
A new report, National Infrastructure and Construction Pipeline – KPMG Analysis, reflects a total allocated value of £502.3 billion, from £463.4 billion in March 2016, and highlights that the largest changes in the pipeline are due to:
- An increase of £12 billion in housing and regeneration including new spend around Accelerated Build, Affordable Housing and Housing Infrastructure fund programmes
- Investment into communications (£15.5 billion), which has increased £9 billion since the March 2016 pipelines. 75 percent (£11.7 billion) of the investment into communications is allocated to the Digital Economy, £6.5 billion of which is new allocated spend since the March 2016 pipelines.
Allocated investment into energy, transport and utilities has remained largely consistent since the last pipelines (1st, 2nd and 3rd highest spends respectively). Combined they make up a total of 84 percent of the total pipeline, accounting to £419 billion in value.
Overall, 65 percent of spend is attributed to projects that benefit the whole of the UK (£326 billion) followed by the South at £71.9 billion and then the North at £47.8 billion. Spend per capita suggests equal funding per person between North and South.
Richard Threlfall, KPMG’s UK Head of Infrastructure, Building and Construction said: “This is the first time the Government has produced a combined infrastructure and construction pipeline. Our analysis confirms that there has been a significant increase in the value of that pipeline, and that energy and transport remain the biggest sectors and hence provide the best opportunities in the UK market.
I expect infrastructure investors and the construction industry will both welcome having a comprehensive view of the spending plans of Government and utilities, covering both social and economic infrastructure.”
Read the December 2016 issue of Construction Global magazine
Why engineers must always consider human-induced vibration
Human induced vibration, or more accurately vibrations caused by human footfall, often conjures images of Millennium Bridge-style swaying or collapsing buildings.
But in reality, the ‘damage’ caused by human-induced vibrations is less likely to ruin a structure and more likely to cause discomfort in people. Though not as dramatic as a structural failure, any good engineer wants to make sure the people using their structures, be it bridges or buildings or anything in between, can do so safely and comfortably. This is why human-induced vibration must be considered within the design process.
Resonance v Impulse
There are two ways that human-induced vibrations affect structures: resonant, and impulse or transient response. Put simply, resonance occurs when Object A vibrates at the same natural frequency as Object B.
Object B resonates and begins to vibrate too. Think singing to break a wine glass! Although the person singing isn’t touching the glass, the vibrations of their voice are resonating with the glass’s natural frequency, causing this vibration to get stronger and stronger and eventually, break the glass. In the case of a structure, resonance occurs when the pedestrian’s feet land in time with the vibration.
On the other hand, impulse or transient vibration responses can be a problem on structures where its natural frequencies are too high for resonance to occur, such as where the structure is light or stiff. Here the discomfort is caused by the initial “bounce” of the structure caused by the footstep and is a concern on light or stiff structures.
Engineers must, of course, design to reduce the vibration effects caused by either impulse or resonance.
Potential impacts from human induced vibration
Human induced vibration can lead to a number of effects upon the structure and its users. These include:
- Interfering with sensitive equipment Depending on the building’s purpose, what it houses can be affected by the vibrations of people using the building. Universities and laboratories, for example, may have sensitive equipment whose accuracy and performance could be damaged by vibrations. Even in ordinary offices the footfall vibration can wobble computer screens, upsetting the workers.
- Swaying bridges One of the most famous examples of human-induced resonance impacting a structure occurred with the Millennium Bridge. As people walked across the bridge, the footsteps caused the bridge to sway, and everybody had to walk in time with the sway because it was difficult not to. Thankfully, this feedback can only occur with horizontal vibrations so building floors are safe from it, but footbridges need careful checking to prevent it.
- Human discomfort According to research, vibrations in buildings and structures can cause depression and even motion sickness in inhabitants. Tall buildings sway in the wind and footsteps can be felt, even subconsciously by the occupants. It has been argued that modern efficient designs featuring thinner floor slabs and wider spacing in column design mean that these new builds are not as effective at dampening vibrations as older buildings are.
- Jeopardising structural integrity The build-up of constant vibrations on a structure can, eventually, lead to structural integrity being compromised. A worse-case scenario would be the complete collapse of the structure and is the reason some bridges insist that marching troops break step before crossing. Crowds jumping in time to music or in response to a goal in a stadium are also dynamic loads that might damage an under-designed structure.
How to avoid it
As mentioned, modern designs that favour thinner slabs and wider column spacing are particularly susceptible to all forms of vibration, human-induced or otherwise, but short spans can also suffer due to their low mass. Using sophisticated structural engineering software is an effective method for engineers to test for and mitigate footfall and other vibrations at the design stage.