May 16, 2020

Bring in the troops! Could armed forces save the construction sector from crisis?

Skill Shortage
Admin
2 min
Bring in the troops! Could armed forces save the construction sector from crisis?
The construction industry is set to get a helping hand from returning military veterans, it has been revealed. Housing minister Brandon Lewis, said that...

The construction industry is set to get a helping hand from returning military veterans, it has been revealed. Housing minister Brandon Lewis, said that men and women who have served the country in the Armed Forces are well-equipped with the skills that the industry needs.

These include opportunities in construction, built environment and civil engineering. BuildForce is funded by the Construction Industry Training Board (CITB) and delivered by the Construction Youth Trust and the Career Transition Partnership.

It arranges a number of recruitment events that allow people to seek a number of different employment opportunities in the construction sector.

Commenting on the findings, Steve Radley, director of policy at CITB, said: "BuildForce helps ex-servicemen and women take the skills they’ve learned in the forces into construction, where they can build the hundreds of thousands of new homes Britain needs.

"The project’s success lies in the strong partnership between industry and the military, which CITB is proud to fund and support. The construction sector needs over 200,000 talented new workers in the next five years, and there are rewarding careers available for people of every background and experience."

In 2008, the financial crash dealt a blow to the construction industry and resulted in the loss of a quarter of a million construction jobs.

Fast forward to the year 2015, and housebuilding levels are now more than double those seen in 2009 - thereby increasing the demand for skilled workers.

In a BuildForce recruitment event, Mr Lewis, said: "Our efforts have got Britain building with starts at their highest annual level for nearly six years, creating thousands of jobs across the country.

“The brave men and women in uniform who have served their country in our Armed Forces should be at the front of the queue for skilled construction careers when they return to Civvy Street.”

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Jun 17, 2021

Why engineers must always consider human-induced vibration

Vibrations
Engineering
design
Structuralintegrity
Dominic Ellis
3 min
Human-induced vibration can lead to a number of effects upon the structure and its users

Human induced vibration, or more accurately vibrations caused by human footfall, often conjures images of Millennium Bridge-style swaying or collapsing buildings.

But in reality, the ‘damage’ caused by human-induced vibrations is less likely to ruin a structure and more likely to cause discomfort in people. Though not as dramatic as a structural failure, any good engineer wants to make sure the people using their structures, be it bridges or buildings or anything in between, can do so safely and comfortably. This is why human-induced vibration must be considered within the design process.

Resonance v Impulse

There are two ways that human-induced vibrations affect structures: resonant, and impulse or transient response. Put simply, resonance occurs when Object A vibrates at the same natural frequency as Object B.

Object B resonates and begins to vibrate too. Think singing to break a wine glass! Although the person singing isn’t touching the glass, the vibrations of their voice are resonating with the glass’s natural frequency, causing this vibration to get stronger and stronger and eventually, break the glass. In the case of a structure, resonance occurs when the pedestrian’s feet land in time with the vibration.

On the other hand, impulse or transient vibration responses can be a problem on structures where its natural frequencies are too high for resonance to occur, such as where the structure is light or stiff. Here the discomfort is caused by the initial “bounce” of the structure caused by the footstep and is a concern on light or stiff structures.

Engineers must, of course, design to reduce the vibration effects caused by either impulse or resonance.

Potential impacts from human induced vibration

Human induced vibration can lead to a number of effects upon the structure and its users. These include:

  • Interfering with sensitive equipment Depending on the building’s purpose, what it houses can be affected by the vibrations of people using the building. Universities and laboratories, for example, may have sensitive equipment whose accuracy and performance could be damaged by vibrations. Even in ordinary offices the footfall vibration can wobble computer screens, upsetting the workers.
     
  • Swaying bridges One of the most famous examples of human-induced resonance impacting a structure occurred with the Millennium Bridge. As people walked across the bridge, the footsteps caused the bridge to sway, and everybody had to walk in time with the sway because it was difficult not to. Thankfully, this feedback can only occur with horizontal vibrations so building floors are safe from it, but footbridges need careful checking to prevent it.
     
  • Human discomfort According to research, vibrations in buildings and structures can cause depression and even motion sickness in inhabitants. Tall buildings sway in the wind and footsteps can be felt, even subconsciously by the occupants. It has been argued that modern efficient designs featuring thinner floor slabs and wider spacing in column design mean that these new builds are not as effective at dampening vibrations as older buildings are.
     
  • Jeopardising structural integrity The build-up of constant vibrations on a structure can, eventually, lead to structural integrity being compromised. A worse-case scenario would be the complete collapse of the structure and is the reason some bridges insist that marching troops break step before crossing. Crowds jumping in time to music or in response to a goal in a stadium are also dynamic loads that might damage an under-designed structure.

How to avoid it

As mentioned, modern designs that favour thinner slabs and wider column spacing are particularly susceptible to all forms of vibration, human-induced or otherwise, but short spans can also suffer due to their low mass. Using sophisticated structural engineering software is an effective method for engineers to test for and mitigate footfall and other vibrations at the design stage.

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