Construction companies predict rise of eco homes
Smith & Williamson’s annual survey of the UK property and construction sector revealed that over 75 percent of respondents felt it likely that eco-homes would become a dominant trend in the future and 56 percent felt that the demands of a new generation of consumers, brought up in a digital age, would revolutionise property requirements.
“With ever increasing property prices we are beginning to see the differing demands of a younger generation, who are increasingly mobile, environmentally conscious and able to decide where, as well as when, to settle down,” said Mark Webb, Chairman of the property and construction group at Smith & Williamson.
“Developers are increasingly aware that these people do not necessarily need their first home to be a house in the suburbs but rather a place with excellent transport connections, sufficient internet capability to work from home and increased built in technology from smart heating systems to being able to control the lights and security from their phone.”
The annual survey from Smith & Williamson, the accountancy, investment management and tax group, which had over 200 respondents from across the property and construction industry, sought views on business confidence, the development of technology, government policy and access to finance amongst other matters.
The survey demonstrated that business confidence is growing; belief in commercial property over the next 12 months was close to matching confidence in residential property over the same timeframe, at 72 percent and 75 percent respectively.
However, for the first time in the history of survey, Central London is no longer the top cause for optimism with property experts five percentage points more optimistic for Greater London delivering investment returns over the centre. Principally, following changes to SDLT and continued planning restrictions, demand for prime Central London real estate has declined with many respondents increasingly encouraged by the prospect of development in Greater London.
Why engineers must always consider human-induced vibration
Human induced vibration, or more accurately vibrations caused by human footfall, often conjures images of Millennium Bridge-style swaying or collapsing buildings.
But in reality, the ‘damage’ caused by human-induced vibrations is less likely to ruin a structure and more likely to cause discomfort in people. Though not as dramatic as a structural failure, any good engineer wants to make sure the people using their structures, be it bridges or buildings or anything in between, can do so safely and comfortably. This is why human-induced vibration must be considered within the design process.
Resonance v Impulse
There are two ways that human-induced vibrations affect structures: resonant, and impulse or transient response. Put simply, resonance occurs when Object A vibrates at the same natural frequency as Object B.
Object B resonates and begins to vibrate too. Think singing to break a wine glass! Although the person singing isn’t touching the glass, the vibrations of their voice are resonating with the glass’s natural frequency, causing this vibration to get stronger and stronger and eventually, break the glass. In the case of a structure, resonance occurs when the pedestrian’s feet land in time with the vibration.
On the other hand, impulse or transient vibration responses can be a problem on structures where its natural frequencies are too high for resonance to occur, such as where the structure is light or stiff. Here the discomfort is caused by the initial “bounce” of the structure caused by the footstep and is a concern on light or stiff structures.
Engineers must, of course, design to reduce the vibration effects caused by either impulse or resonance.
Potential impacts from human induced vibration
Human induced vibration can lead to a number of effects upon the structure and its users. These include:
- Interfering with sensitive equipment Depending on the building’s purpose, what it houses can be affected by the vibrations of people using the building. Universities and laboratories, for example, may have sensitive equipment whose accuracy and performance could be damaged by vibrations. Even in ordinary offices the footfall vibration can wobble computer screens, upsetting the workers.
- Swaying bridges One of the most famous examples of human-induced resonance impacting a structure occurred with the Millennium Bridge. As people walked across the bridge, the footsteps caused the bridge to sway, and everybody had to walk in time with the sway because it was difficult not to. Thankfully, this feedback can only occur with horizontal vibrations so building floors are safe from it, but footbridges need careful checking to prevent it.
- Human discomfort According to research, vibrations in buildings and structures can cause depression and even motion sickness in inhabitants. Tall buildings sway in the wind and footsteps can be felt, even subconsciously by the occupants. It has been argued that modern efficient designs featuring thinner floor slabs and wider spacing in column design mean that these new builds are not as effective at dampening vibrations as older buildings are.
- Jeopardising structural integrity The build-up of constant vibrations on a structure can, eventually, lead to structural integrity being compromised. A worse-case scenario would be the complete collapse of the structure and is the reason some bridges insist that marching troops break step before crossing. Crowds jumping in time to music or in response to a goal in a stadium are also dynamic loads that might damage an under-designed structure.
How to avoid it
As mentioned, modern designs that favour thinner slabs and wider column spacing are particularly susceptible to all forms of vibration, human-induced or otherwise, but short spans can also suffer due to their low mass. Using sophisticated structural engineering software is an effective method for engineers to test for and mitigate footfall and other vibrations at the design stage.